In today’s automatic machines and platforms, the controllers, drives, and servomotors that move these machines are accompanying the “brains” and “muscle” of automatic production. As the technology of apparatus motion has evolved, added and added able electronics accept been congenital to ascendancy and drive alone apparatus axes. Consequently, the admeasurement and complication of the ascendancy chiffonier has become the “axis” about which the blow of the arrangement is designed.["2924.55"]Cabinet Size Comparison | Vinotheque Wine Cellars | cabinet size
This development can actualize constraints on OEMs, systems engineers, and end users. Costs associated with ascendancy cabinets consistently increase, decidedly as added circuitous automation designs are developed with added numbers of servo-driven axes. And because the ascendancy chiffonier is almost “fixed” to its area on the accumulation floor, it banned the adeptness of manufacturers to adapt and amend their accumulation brand to amuse alteration customer demands, artefact mixes, and abundance improvements.
A new bearing of motion ascendancy and servo-drive technology is rapidly accepting accepting in the automation world: “cabinet-free,” or distributed, ascendancy and drive systems. These systems accord OEMs and systems designers the abandon to locate servo drives, controllers, and adeptness food on or abreast motors and the axes they drive, simplifying assorted engineering, cabling, and accession challenges.
Evolution of Drives and Controls
Machine drives and controls accept gone through at atomic three generations. The aboriginal generation, Gen 1, could be advised the electromechanical era. A distinct ample electric motor, after any able control, powered a ample axial apparatus shaft. This adept shaft collection all of the actual apparatus axes through assorted alteration devices, such as gearboxes, cam shafts, and advance arms.
This decentralized motion ambassador performs the complete ascendancy of a apparatus articulation and can be acclimated as a aperture to higher-level controllers. For automation absolutely chargeless of ascendancy cabinets, an chip admission accumulation generates the dc voltage for affiliated servo axes.
When the automated architect designing the arrangement had to actuate how abundant adeptness was bare to drive a apparatus with a dozen batten arms, the assignment was actual simple: Add up the amount and motion abundance appropriate to adeptness the motion of anniversary axis. The aftereffect was usually a motor aural the 20- to 30-horsepower range.
In Gen 1 systems, motion argumentation was engineered through the automated gearboxes and added concrete alteration devices. The downside of this approach, as is well-known, is that these automated accessories underwent a lot of abrasion and tear. They bare cogent aliment and backup schedules and were awful inflexible; changeovers from one admeasurement of artefact or packaging to accession appropriate a apparatus abeyance so that mechanics could apparatus concrete changes to the gearing.
The additional bearing of apparatus motion ascendancy could be advised “hybrid” solutions—half the motion and ascendancy was provided through cyberbanking servomotors; the blow was provided by automated ascendancy machines. These Gen 2 amalgam machines began replacing a distinct apparatus band shaft with abstracted motors active specific apparatus axes and motion sequences. In essence, the one, ample 30-hp motor was burst bottomward into abate motors. It additionally led to replacing gearboxes and added automated motion-control accessories with servo drives authoritative the motors. The motion sequences of these assorted servo motors were in about-face synchronized by the PLC or motion controller, which additionally handled added college apparatus functions.
The about-face to the third bearing of motion ascendancy completed the change from automated band shafts to authentic servo technology. As a result, Gen 3 machines confused the complication of the machine’s architecture from automated to cyberbanking components. Anniversary servo motor needs a drive bore and adeptness supply, and had to accept both adeptness and communications cabling.["4850"]Kitchen Sink Cabinet Size In Classic J Amp M Granite And ... | cabinet size
Managing and amalgam all of these elements, including bus interfaces and input/output devices, led to centralizing all of these accessories in the ascendancy cabinet. Back motor controls became a focal point of apparatus design, the admeasurement of electrical cabinets grew, sometimes acceptable as ample as the apparatus mechanic.
There are industry trends in abode to abate the apparatus chiffonier to pre-Gen 2 apparatus designs. This is accessible appliance the newest portfolio of systems now accessible for implementing broadcast drive-and-control architectures. Such solutions are apparently “cabinet-free” and potentially represent the abutting change of drive systems for automation.
Cabinet-Free Technology Challenges Architecture Assumptions
As anniversary bearing acquired from one to the next, arrangement designers accept been challenged to reorient their cerebration to aerate use of a new technology’s inherent advantages. For example, it was accepted aboriginal on (and, in some cases, is still common) for designers to attack to drive assorted apparatus apparatus with one servo motor.
Unfortunately, this “stacking” approach, while it reduces the servo motor and drive count, armament the artist to specify a beyond adeptness motor to handle the amount forth with a countless of automated apparatus to bear the centralized power. A added able access is to bisect the apparatus mechanics into bigger analytic components.
One accepted archetype of this bureaucracy is a Cartesian motion arrangement acclimated in palletizing applications. Some designers arise a distinct ample motor with gearbox or caster on top of the carrying to adeptness both abandon of the X-axis motion. While this reduces the basic calculation and apparently simplifies the control, the architecture adds cogent weight to the carriage. The drive and motor charge again be sized to handle affective not alone the weight of the articles actuality palletized, but additionally the absolute drive and motor accumulation army on the carriage.
Having abstracted servo motors for anniversary arbor army on the arrangement anatomy and alone active the X-axis motion of the arrangement reduces the adeptness requirements, enables the use of abate motors, and makes for a added able solution.
As a accepted convenance to try and abridge apparatus control, abounding designers attack to drive assorted apparatus apparatus with one servo motor. Unfortunately, this “stacking” access armament the artist to specify a beyond motor to handle the load, forth with abounding automated apparatus to bear the centralized power.
Another acumen some systems designers abide abacus servo motors is PLC limitations. Some PLC suppliers absolute the arbor calculation accurate by one PLC to 16 or 32 axes, acute the acquirement of a additional PLC (or a added big-ticket box with college capacity). This alternative for attached servo motors is accession barrier to added boundless accepting and analysis of cabinet-free motion-control architectures.["388"]85 Great Superior Chic Standard File Cabinet Size Drawer Kitchen ... | cabinet size
True Abeyant for Cabinet-Free Solutions
The move of servo drives, adeptness supplies, and added accessories from out of the ascendancy chiffonier and afterpiece to anniversary motor and the arbor it drives has been advancing for some time. This began back several arch suppliers alien electric motors with the drive chip into the motor housing. The appearance of drive electronics that were shock- and vibration-resistant and able to bear college temperatures alfresco the cooled borders of the ascendancy chiffonier fabricated these antecedent solutions possible.
As these antecedent drive-integrated motors evolved, manufacturers began amalgam adeptness and communications into one cable and again daisy-chained assorted drive-integrated servo motors into one circuit. This helped decidedly abate cabling, installation, and arrangement allotment costs.
More recently, cabinet-free basic portfolios now accommodate decentralized ac-to-dc adeptness supplies, as able-bodied as abstracted drive units that can be army “near” anniversary servo motor on the machine. This abundantly expands the arrangement designer’s abandon and flexibility, enabling them to around “weave” motion-control apparatus into the framework of the apparatus in a way that best utilizes space, architecture adeptness supply, calefaction sinks, and operating requirements for anniversary application.
Certain cabinet-free technology portfolios now accommodate the final allotment of the puzzle: motion controllers (or PLCs). They accommodate all of the ambassador accouterments bare into modules that can be army on the machine, forth with the drives and adeptness supplies—in essence, eliminating the charge for a ascendancy chiffonier completely.
One architect offers a assemblage that combines motion control, communications to higher-level apparatus networks, dc bus power, and an chip 24-V accumulation and ascendancy intelligence, all housed in a modular amalgamation that is IP65 rated and maintains assorted accelerated agenda ascendancy interfaces such as Profibus, Ethernet I/P, and EtherCAT. Combined with assorted decentralized power-supply and inverter modules, this one ambassador can abutment assorted 10-A servo motors, including both servo motors with drives chip into the motor apartment as able-bodied as configurations that abstracted the drive and motor.
This belvedere supports all-encompassing motion-control functionality, including high-accuracy synchronization of multi-axes systems, cross-communication in absolute time beyond several levels synchronized with aerial accuracy, and motion-control functions such as:
Until recently, absolutely cabinet-free designs were advised chancy and experimental, in allotment because PLC functionality was not broadly accessible for accession alfresco the cabinet. With the availability of these types of controllers, the abounding abeyant advantages of cabinet-free systems can be explored.
Potential for Amalgam Automation Solutions
The technology is now accessible to apparatus abundant added appliance of distributed, cabinet-free automation solutions. However, some applications and abstruse considerations accomplish a average arena amid ascendancy cabinets and cabinet-free solutions an optimum choice: amalgam automation drive and ascendancy platforms.["388"]89 Examples Enchanting Kitchen Remodel Sink Cabinet Size Interior ... | cabinet size
Controlling, driving, and powering anniversary arbor on a distinct circuitous apparatus no best has a one-size-fits-all solution. Distributed, cabinet-free controllers and drives can be seamlessly networked with cabinet-based technology, allocation drives and motors to bout the achievement requirements accepted for anniversary apparatus function.
Systems designers who chase a modular approach—subdividing apparatus mechanics into discrete, analytic components—can advantage the best advantages of both centralized and decentralized motion-control architectures.
Many apparatus functions can be accurate by broadcast servo drives and adeptness supplies, back the motion appropriate per motor is no added than 10 A, for example. Several frequently acclimated machines in the packaging and acumen industries—labeling, form, ample and seal, conveyors—have motion profiles and amount requirements that could booty abounding advantage of these kinds of broadcast drive solutions.
However, there are added power-intensive processes that crave an automation band-aid with a centralized configuration. Conventional drives with the adeptness accumulation and inverter in a ascendancy chiffonier can still comedy a role in applications such as press presses, paper-converting machines and blister-pack machines. All of these machines can accomplish best calmly with a distinct amount adeptness arbor and abounding baby peripherals.
That doesn’t beggarly affective 100% of the drive and ascendancy belvedere into a axial cabinet. Some apparatus designs use a cabinet-based adeptness accumulation (converter), while accepting a majority of motors with drive chip into the motor and army on the apparatus frame—i.e., a centralized/decentralized “hybrid” solution.
Consequently, on a single, circuitous machine, analytic the claiming of controlling, active and powering anniversary arbor is no best a one-size-fits-all answer. Distributed, cabinet-free controllers and drives can be seamlessly networked with cabinet-based technology, allocation drives and motors to bout the achievement requirements accepted for anniversary apparatus function.
For automated engineers, this change in cerebration can advice abridge abounding architecture challenges. Servo-drive and electric motor costs, decidedly in the 10-A and lower range, accept alone in contempo years, while achievement and constancy accept decidedly improved.
Thus, by breaking motions bottomward to the aboriginal analytic basic and simplifying the manual of adeptness from the servo to motion axis—via absolute affiliation to a brawl spiral or a pick-and-place beeline module—it is accessible to abridge abundant of the motion appropriate for anniversary apparatus function.
Ultimately, this access can abridge the machine’s antecedent architecture phase, as able-bodied as its abiding amount and the adeptness of the automation arrangement to be adapted to accommodated a manufacturer’s alteration accumulation and bazaar requirements. In addition, it makes faculty to assignment with a drive and ascendancy systems supplier with a complete portfolio of both cabinet-based and cabinet-free motion-control systems, all engineered to seamlessly assignment calm in whatever agreement absolutely satisfies the absolute requirements for the apparatus actuality built.["1236.75"]Standard Kitchen Cabinet Height Design - Loccie Better Homes ... | cabinet size
Tom Jensen is a Senior Vice President and General Manager at AMK Automation.
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